Informal and special interest courses

About these courses

The informal events listed here are not certified or approved by the Bach Centre, so we make no guarantee as to their quality. Bach Centre-approved courses are listed on a separate page.

Most informal courses are organised and taught by independent teachers. Some are open to beginners; others assume a good general knowledge of the remedies; a few may be for practitioners only.

Booking is direct with the course provider, and is subject to the provider’s terms and conditions. Cancellation fees may apply.

Online groups that meet in English

These are real-time interactions via video link, online, offering a range of different topics. Some will charge, some are free. Contact the person responsible to find out more.

  • Patricia Campbell-Parker, pansy@vitalwellbeing.net – for Level 1 students and above – for study, inspiration and educational support – running once a week during lockdown, afternoons UK time – via Zoom
  • Angela Davies – angelajdavies@tiscali.co.uk – weekly Zoom meetings on a Thursday evening (UK time) – 7.00-8.30 for L1 students and above – all things Bach – join in for connection, support, study and sharing of information
  • Tessa Jordan, tessa@tessajordan.co.uk – for Level 1 students and above – discussing cases and ongoing support – every two to three months, 6pm UTC to 8pm UTC – via Zoom or Skype
  • Free online group for BFRPs only, meeting in English via Zoom. Aims to support practitioners in Singapore. Meets every month around noon Singapore time. Contact Deki Soh, deki@bachasia.com.
  • Free online group for Level 3 students in Singapore, meeting in English via Zoom. Aims to build relationships between future practitioners and provide mutual support. Meets monthly, usually at 12 pm noon Singapore time. Contact Deki Soh, deki@bachasia.com.
  • Sarah Brune, info@bachflowerscanada.com – open to anyone – general interest, and spreading the knowledge of the remedies – first Tuesday of the month, 7 – 9 pm (Pacific Standard Time) – via Zoom
  • Aarti Ranadive, aartiranadive@gmail.com – for Level 1 students and above – general interest, studying the system and knowing more about the remedies and their application – once a month, 12.30pm to 1.30pm UTC – via Zoom, Skype
  • Ong Hong Seng, hongseng@bachasia.com – for BFRPs – supporting practitioners, supervision – ad hoc, on demand, 2am – 1pm UTC, an hour within these times – via Zoom, Skype or Google Hangout
  • How to teach L1 online- this workshop will support trainers who want to work online in real-time as an option. We will review the basics about structuring content and how to use technology (Zoom) for that purpose. Pre-requisite: to be a BFRP Trainer registered with the BC. Duration 1-hour using Zoom. For more information, please contact Marielena Nunez mwnunezb@gmail.com.
  • Arty Amarisa is offering free monthly online sessions focusing on the ‘Journey of self discovery through the Bach Flowers’.  The sessions are held monthly on the first Tuesday of the month at 7pm UK time via zoom. Anyone who wants to know about the Bach Flowers is welcome to attend. For more information to register email info@positiveharmonypsychology.com.
  • Nini Gridley, fullspectrumhealing@gmail.com – open to anybody – answer questions about the system and how and when to use it – Tuesday evenings 8:00-9:00 PM EDT in New York, USA, weekly – via Zoom
  • Suchitra Hari, bachflower@suchitrahari.com – for L1 students – discussion of case studies and the system – first Tuesday of the month, 4 pm India Time (10: 30 am UTC) – via Zoom
  • Jhelum Biswas Bose – jhelumbiswas@gmail.com – open to anybody – for general information on and how to use Bach – Mon-Thurs, 2 hour sessions, afternoons India time – via Zoom
  • Stefania Trudu, info@transformationpaths.com – open to anybody – supporting practitioners, studying the system – every 2 months, 4.00-5.30 pm UTC – via Zoom
  • Mitsue Matsumura, https://ameblo.jp/mitsue-matsumura/entry-12584066787.html – open to anybody – general health issues including other approaches to health – two groups, one meets annually, one monthly, 10am-12am in Europe time – via Skype
  • Ericca Gan – ericcagan@gmail.com – open to anybody – general interest in natural therapies – various days and times – via Zoom and WhatsApp
  • Naznin M. A. Chimthanawala, positivewings@gmail.com – open to anybody – Bach philosophy, supporting practitioners, case study discussions – once a week, every 10 days, afternoons, India time – via Zoom
  • Interactive meeting for Bach practitioners and people interested in the system, where we discuss case studies and revise remedies. Every Saturday evening 4 pm to 5 pm Indian Standard Time (IST), via Zoom. For information send Whatsapp message to Dr Naznin, +919767888323, or email positivewings@gmail.com
  • Kerri Aab, hello@kerriaab.com – for mothers who want to learn about the Bach system – no experience necessary – share emotions, get support and advice on how the Bach system can help – every Thursday, 7:00pm – 8:00pm UTC – LiveWebinar
  • Stefania Amici, midwestbf@yahoo.com – for BFRPs and BFRAPs – supporting practitioners and studying the system – 4th Saturday of each month, 10:00am to 11:00am (GMT) – via Skype
  • Laura Ginestri, gin.lau@hotmail.it – open to anyone, including children with their mothers – knowledge of remedies, including family situations and self-help – once or twice a week, two hours in the afternoon – via Facebook, Google

Other groups, courses, classes and workshops

Argentina

Australia

  • Amanda Warner BFRAP, a qualified companion animal behaviourist and veterinary nurse, teaches weekend animal interest courses in New Zealand and Australia. Amanda draws on the latest research into animal behaviour to show how to use Bach remedies more effectively with your animals. To register your interest visit Amanda’s website.

Austria

Bolivia

Brazil

Canada

  • Formed in January 2014, the Vancouver Bach Flower Practitioner-Users Support Group aims to meet monthly in North Vancouver, British Colombia. Open to anyone who knows the remedies fairly well and has used them on themselves or others – so that includes practitioners, Level 1 students and people who are self taught. Email Linzi Martin or call 604 440 7376 for more details.

Chile

China

  • Victoria Hsin-Hsin Hsu via WeChat ID:巴曲花精 Bachflowers – general Bach Flowers Friendly Group – 开放给所有对花精感兴趣、听过许心馨喜马拉雅免费音频课程或看过巴曲花精官方微信文章,写过听后/阅后心得的人群 – 每个月第三个星期三晚上8-9点:巴曲花精官方微信微课堂 – WeChat
  • Anna Wang, annawang88@qq.com – open to anybody – reading group studying the system via “Heal thyself” and “Bloom” – every Friday, 7:30-8:45PM, Beijing time – Zoom – free
  • Anna Wang, annawang88@qq.com – for L1 students and above, including BFRPs – support for students and practitioners – twice a month on Thursdays – via Zoom – free
  • Victoria Hsin-Hsin Hsu, hsu.victoria@qq.com – BFRPs only – 想以中文互相认识、交流的BFRP(包括想以中文分享、交流BFRP Bulletin要闻的注册花精谘商师) – 每个季度一次(3月1日、6月1日、9月1日、12月1日)晚上8-10点 – Zoom
  • Victoria Hsin-Hsin Hsu, hsu.victoria@qq.com – BFRPs + L3 students – BFRP和Level 3高阶学员的主题共修 – 每周二晚上8-10点(新冠期间) – Zoom
  • Victoria Hsin-Hsin Hsu, hsu.victoria@qq.com – Medical Professional Gatherings – 针对医疗背景的专业从业人员的花精公益分享和身心健康讲座 – 不定期约半年(至少)一次 – Zoom + onsite gatherings
  • Jianping Zheng – 龙芽草社区/公益连线 – 巴赫花精与自我疗愈 – 时间:每星期二, 晚上7-9点 – 费用:免费 – 工具:Zoom,会议号562 863 7407 – 主题:与巴赫花精与自我疗愈相关 – 环节:冥想(10分钟)—心情天气预报—主题讨论与答疑(50分钟)—冥想(10分钟)
  • Helena Luk, helenaluk678@gmail.com – online group open to anybody – general interest in healthy growth of body and mind – once or twice a month, 2pm to 5pm Hong Kong time, via Zoom, WeChat, WhatsApp – free

Costa Rica

Denmark

  • Kom med i Facebook gruppen ‘Bachs Blomster-Susanne Løfgren’ og få opdateret din viden om Bachremedierne. Ny viden, nye kurser gennem www.casu.dk.
  • Supervision for Bachterapeuter og Bachstuderende (min. Trin 2) – Foregår pt. kun i Kbh. 3 aftener pr. semester. kl. 17-20. Henvendelse til Susanne Løfgren: mail@casu.dk
  • Denne hjemmeside er skabt af Bach Blomsterterapiforeningen, som  er opløst på generalforsamlingen den 23. april 2019 efter eget ønske fra bestyrelsen.Siden bliver stående på ubestemt tid: www.bachforeningen.dk.
  • Anette Lei`s Facebook-gruppe for alle der ønsker et fællesskab med inspiration og hjælp til selvudvikling og Bach Blomster: ”Bach Blomster HJÆLP når følelserne driller v. Anette Lei”. Søg om medlemskab her: https://www.facebook.com/groups/403247720328792/.

Ecuador

France

  • Séverine NICOLLET, contact@les-harmoniques.com – groupe en ligne pour les étudiants de niveau 1 et supérieur et les BFRP, y compris la formation continue des conseillers – 4 à 8 fois par an, en journée heure française – via Zoom ou Skype – environ 315 € par an
  • Julien Parra, julien.parra@hotmail.fr – groupe en ligne ouvert à tous pour l’intérêt général, soutien émotionnel – organisé deux fois par semaine le mardi et le jeudi matin – via Zoom – gratuit
  • Laurence KLEITZ, eklaure@wanadoo.fr – online groupe pour tout le monde mais plus particulièrement les étudiants L1, L2, L3 et les conseillers – soutenir les conseillers et futurs conseillers – rencontres une fois par semaine pendant le confinement, jeudi 8h30 PM et vendredi 2h00 PM – via Zoom – gratuit pour l’instant
  • Patrick Donnadille, patrick.donnadille@gmail.com – ouvert à tous – chaque réunion porte sur un thème spécifique – réunion une fois par semaine, de 8h30 à 22h UTC + 1 via Zoom – gratuit
  • Nathalie Cardoner, nathalie.cardoner@gmail.com – groupe en ligne ouvert à tous, étudiant la méthode Bach, la philosophie, les bienfaits des 38 fleurs etc. – se réunit trois fois par mois, le samedi, toute la journée ou l’après-midi, selon le groupe – via Skype – 10 € à 70 € selon la durée
  • Voir le site français

Germany

Greece

  • Elpida Tarantili, elpida@bachinstitute.gr – online group for L1 students and above – taking a deep look at one remedy at a time, supporting students, discussion – meets once a month, 17.30-19.30pm local time on prearranged Saturdays – via Skype – 7€ for students, 10€ for non-members
  • Seminar to get acquainted with the Bach flower remedies – a 3-hour preparatory seminar that covers the 38 remedies & the emergency combination, the basic principles of the system & of remedy selection, where to buy the remedies, how to take them – for more information email info@bachinstitute.gr or call 6936 686 736

Hungary

  • Magyarországon – Mindazok akik elvégeztek egy a Bach Centre által elismert tanfolyamot (Bach Level 1, Level 2, Level 3) részt vehetnek találkozókon ahol a Bach-virágokkal kapcsolatos különbözo témákról beszélgetünk, segítünk tisztázni bizonytalanságokat, megvitatunk esettanulmányokat, megosztjuk tapasztalatainkat. Egy ilyen jellegu összefogás mindannyiunk tevékenységét még inkább stabilizálja, erosíti és pozitívan hat az általunk végzett konzultációkra is. www.bachviragok.hu – davidzsu@bachviragok.hu.

India

Ireland

  • Susan Coen-Collins in Dublin offers supervision to support all those working within the helping professions. Susan holds a Diploma in Cross Professional Supervision and is a member of the Supervisors Association of Ireland. Phone 086-8444303 or email scoencollins@gmail.com.

Israel

  • Bach Flower Lab sessions for Level 1 students and above to discuss cases, dive deeper and give ongoing support – meet every 3 months for approximately 3.5 hours, including breaks, via Zoom if necessary – contact Nadia Joselson at nadiajoselson@gmail.com to get involved.

Italy

  • Free online group via Zoom for Level 1 students – a sort of Help-Desk, helping students to deep the study of the method and to clarify their doubts on the use of the remedies – meets approximately six times a year and upon request of the students, around 9-10:30 pm CET – contact Salvo Santangelo, salvosantangelo1975@gmail.com
  • Vera Paola Termali, info@bachitalia.it – gruppo online solo per BFRP (in particolare membri dell’Associazione BFRP italiana) – esaminando casi di studio, supportando il nostro lavoro con rimedi di Bach, aiuto reciproco e suggerimenti – si incontra il 2 ° lunedì del mese, 9 : Dalle 00:00 alle 22:30, ora italiana – via Zoom – gratis
  • Tamara Macelloni, tamaramacelloni@yahoo.it – gruppo online per BFRP – seguire il sentiero: uniti da lontano – incontra sabato 10-12 am – via Zoom – gratis
  • Camilla Marinoni, camilla1317@gmail.com – gruppo online aperto a chiunque – interesse generale e studio del sistema per esseri umani e animali – 8 incontri di un ora nel tardo pomeriggio ora italiana – via Skype – €. 79
  • Stefania Trudu, info@transformationpaths.com – gruppo online aperto a chiunque – supporto ai professionisti, studio del sistema – incontro ogni 2 mesi, 16: 00-17: 30 UTC – tramite Zoom – £ 12
  • Elisa Pasquini, elisa@elisapasquini.eu – gruppo online aperto a chiunque – supporto pubblico e professionisti – si incontra una o due volte al mese, 18:00 UTC + 2 – via Zoom o Skype – gratis la prima volta / 10 Euro dalla seconda volta
  • Stefania Amici, midwestbf@yahoo.com – gruppo online di BFRP e BFRAP – supporto ai professionisti e studio del sistema – si incontra il 4 ° sabato di ogni mese, dalle 10:00 alle 11:00 (GMT) – via Skype – gratis
  • Laura Ginestri, gin.lau@hotmail.it – gruppo online aperto a tutti, compresi i bambini con le loro madri – acquisire conoscenza dei rimedi, incluso il loro utilizzo in situazioni familiari e per auto-aiuto – si incontra una o due volte a settimana, due ore in il pomeriggio – via Facebook, Google – gratis

Japan

  • Mitsue Matsumura – online group open to anybody looking at general health issues including other approaches to health – two groups, one annual, one monthly, meeting 10am-12pm European time – via Line and Skype – free
  • Hitomi Sano, lavitasingapore@gmail.com – online group for Level 1 students and above – general interest to maintain mental/emotional health under the lock down period – meets alternate Wednesday mornings, 10 am Singapore time, for two hours – via Zoom – free
  • Four BIEP trainers in Japan have started a Bach Circle that meets once a month in Tokyo. The meetings are open to students on any Bach Centre-approved course, and anybody else with a good working knowledge of Dr Bach’s system. The group is called Olea Flora – and you can find out more about them on their blog.
  • BFRP Kansai is a regional Bach friendly group of BFRPs, students and interested people that started up in 2016. The group discusses the remedies, shares experiences and shares readings from books. The plan is to meet once a month. For more information see www.bfrpkansai.jimdo.com.
  • BFRP Tokai is a regional Bach friendly group covering the prefectures of Aichi, Gifu and Mie. Its aim is to nurture a cooperative and supportive community that exchanges experiences and carries out research in line with Dr Bach’s principles. Established in 2012, BFRP Tokai has over 50 members, made up of BFRPs and Level 3 students. The largest gathering is the monthly reading group, and there are study groups for BFRPs and Level 3 students. A number of smaller friendly groups have also formed in individual regions and members regularly study together and informally discuss remedies over lunch. For further details, please see bachflower-bfrptokai.jimdo.com.

Malaysia

  • Jean Ng, jeanng1120@gmail.com – online group run in Mandarin via Zoom or Google Meet, open to anybody as a forum to share emotions, get support and advice on how the Bach system can help – 分享不同的情绪主题,介绍哪些巴哈花精可以帮助舒缓与平衡情绪。 – once or twice a week during the pandemic, every Saturday 3pm-430pm Malaysia time – free during the pandemic – optional treatment bottle RM80
  • Jean Ng, jeanng1120@gmail.com – online group run in Mandarin via Zoom or Google Meet, open to anybody as a space to study the Bach method, philosophy, the benefits of the 38 flowers etc. – 巴哈花精线上基础班,简介巴哈花精哲理及38种花精的应用,适合初学者。 – week day or weekend afternoon 2-5pm each session, Malaysia time – cost RM298 including a treatment bottle
  • Online group run by Ericca Gan, ericcagan@gmail.com – open to anybody with a general interest in natural therapies – various days and times – via Zoom and WhatsApp – charge RM90 (includes a treatment bottle after the group chat).

Mexico

The Netherlands

For details and to book on the following events contact Micheline Bertrams, 0031 (0)343 431681, info@my-vision.netwww.my-vision.net.

  • 31 Mei 2020: Opfris/verdiepingsdag: een dag om je kennis weer wat op te frissen met een aanbod van allerlei oefeningen over de subtiele verschillen tussen de remedies, hoe kom je tot de kern van het probleem, casuïstiek en ruimte voor eigen vragen. Deze dag kan je ook goed gebruiken om je voor te bereiden op Niveau 3 de consulententraining.
  • 22 t/m 26 mei 2020: Bachreis: Dit is een unieke kans om met elkaar het Bach centrum in Sotwell te bezoeken en de sfeer te proeven van het landschap waar Dr. Bach veel van zijn bloesems heeft gevonden. We bezoeken het Bach Centrum – en Nelsons, waar de remedies worden vervaardigt.

New Zealand

  • Amanda Warner BFRAP, a qualified companion animal behaviourist and veterinary nurse, teaches weekend animal interest courses in New Zealand and Australia. Amanda draws on the latest research into animal behaviour to show how to use Bach remedies more effectively with your animals. To register your interest visit Amanda’s website.

Romania

  • Ileana Vladut, ileana@perfectlotus.ro – online group open to anybody – general interest, and supporting people in choosing and using Bach – various days and times – via Zoom (and as alternatives Skype or WhatsApp) – cost 20 – 45 euros

Portugal

Serbia

  • Milena Kostic, jazzord@eunet.rs – online group for L1 students and others who finished L1 program – for L1 students it is about studying the system; for those who finished L1 it is support to maintain and use their knowledge of the system in real life – meets twice a month for two hours, afternoon Serbian time – via Zoom – cost 60 euros per month
  • Biljana Vujović, vujovic.biljana@gmail.com – online group for all who finished L1 – aims to support students and practitioners – meets once a week, 5 pm UCT – via Zoom – free
  • Biljana Vujović, vujovic.biljana@gmail.com – online group for more more experienced users, L2 and L3 level – aims to support students and practitioners – meets once a week, 5 pm UCT – via Zoom – free

Singapore

  • For BFRPs only, an online group supporting practitioners and offering supervision – ad hoc meetings on demand, 2am – 1pm UTC, an hour timing within these time, via Zoom, Skype or Google Hangout- SGD 210 for 1-3 participants, so if there are 3 people signed up the cost will be SGD 70 each – contact Ong Hong Seng, hongseng@bachasia.com.
  • Free online group for BFRPs only, meeting in English via Zoom. Aims to support practitioners in Singapore. Meets every month around noon local time. Contact Deki Soh, deki@bachasia.com.
  • Free online group for BFTP1 trainee trainers only, meeting in Chinese via Zoom. 巴哈基金会教师培训课程之参加者 (Participants for Chinese BFTP1) – aims to suport participants in their assessments. Every 10 weeks, noon. Contact Deki Soh, deki@bachasia.com.
  • Free online group for Level 3 students in Singapore, meeting in English via Zoom. Aims to build relationships between future practitioners and provide mutual support. Meets monthly, usually at 12 pm noon. Contact Deki Soh, deki@bachasia.com.

South Korea

  • Jinhee Lee, happydodream@gmail.com – online group open to anybody for general interest and currently for help using BFRs in COVID-19 situations – meets now and again, 9:00-10:30pm via Google meet – donations (about £​15)
  • Jinhee Lee, happydodream@gmail.com – online group for BFRPs only, aimed at supporting practitioners – meets once or twice a month, 8:00-11:00pm – via Google meet – free

Spain

Switzerland

Taiwan

  • Violet Yi Ying Chang, violetchang113@yahoo.com.tw – online group for DLP students who have completed the course – deepen understanding and prepare for L2 and L3 – various days and times – via Wechat – free
  • Violet Yi Ying Chang, violetchang113@yahoo.com.tw – online group for current DLP students – encouragement to complete DLP homework – various days and times – via Wechat – free

Turkey

  • The growing community in Turkey meets once a month on the last Sunday from 11.00 am to 2.00 pm for the “Bach Round Table Discussions” in Urla – Izmir. It’s open to all who did Level 1. Please contact Nese Calapverdi BFRP for more information at +90 532 2660809 or e-mail nese@sessizseyir.com.

United Kingdom

  • MidWest BFRP is a UK-based peer supervision group for BFRPs. Focuses mainly but not exclusively on working with children and animals. Monthly Skype meetings and one face-to-face meeting per year in the NW of England/Wales. Contact Stefania and Elaine at midwestBF@yahoo.com for more info.

Courses at Mount Vernon…

Coming with friends? Arrange seminars and courses at the Bach Centre whenever you want them!

Dorset…

  • Dorset BFG or Bach Friendly group meets near Christchurch every three months on a Saturday morning – open to those who are at L3 in their training or are BFRPs. Email lac.ttc@gmail.com or call Lesley Cooke on 01202 483230 for details

Edinburgh…

  • “Let’s-talk-Bach” group meets in Edinburgh every two months. Anyone who’s completed Bach Level 2 or above is very welcome to come and join. Each meeting we choose two different remedies to discuss (very informally) and all come away having learned something new. Cost £5 (to cover room-hire and coffee/tea). For further details contact Linsey on 07949 433344 or Theresa on 0131 622 0390.

Kent…

  • One-to-one tutorials. – If you are unable to get to a group or class this could be the answer. Bach remedy one-to-one tutorials take place in Gravesend at a time and day to suit you. You can choose what you want to focus on, such as applying remedies to particular user groups, eg, children, teenagers, the elderly, working with terminal illness, loss/ bereavement, the body/mind link, how to give a talk to a group, or consultation issues such as being an effective listener, setting and keeping boundaries, keeping case notes, and confidential support with clients. Go to Angela Davies’ web site or phone her on 01474 329335.
  • A Bach Friendly Group near Ashford, on the second Wednesday of the month at 7.30pm to 9.30pm. An opportunity for like-minded Bach enthusiasts to get together for support, advice with a little fun thrown in. All suggestions welcome. £3 contribution towards refreshments. All Level 1 and above welcome. Contact Karen on 01233 820420 or Karen@bachflowerremedies.co.uk for more information.
  • The Bach Friendly Group N.W. Kent meet on the 2nd Thursday of each month between 10.30-12.30 at The Events Room Millbrook Garden Centre Station Road Southfleet Gravesend Kent DA13 9PA. There is ample parking space, it has a lovely new restaurant for a meal snack or just a coffee. The centre is open from 9am to 5pm on our meeting day. All newcomers would be very welcome to our small friendly group. We ask £5 per visit to cover the cost of the venue. If you would like to come along please call Barbara Cummins: 01634 222722; 07714 656610; barbaracummins@gmail.com.

Norfolk…

  • The BFG, or Bach Friendly Group, is a gathering of interested and interesting people who have a passion for the remedies and want to bounce ideas around and discuss things amongst friends. No charge. See this web site for more details.

Oxfordshire…

See the section on courses at Mount Vernon.

Suffolk…

  • Bach Friendly Group. – An informal gathering of interested and interesting people who have a passion for the Bach remedies and want to bounce ideas around and have discussions amongst friends. No charge, but contributions to charity welcomed. 7.30 to 9.30 pm in Ipswich. Contact Tessa Jordan on 01473 728498 or consult her web site.
  • Bach Flowers: Emotional Empowerment for Birth – a half day workshop for pregnant mums to be and their partners. Contact Tessa Jordan on 01473 728498 or consult her web site.
  • Supervision for Bach Practitioners – offered as individual sessions or with others in a group. Contact Tessa Jordan (Bach Practitioner and Trainer) on 01473 728498 or consult her web site.

Surrey…

  • Bach ‘reminder’ groups in in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey. Do join us if you’re interested in reinforcing, sharing, and supporting each other with this amazing system in a small, friendly group. All welcome. Contact Patricia Campbell-Parker for more information on 020 8549 2721 or 07836 694 354.

West Sussex…

  • Bach remedies groups take place in Felpham one evening a month, from 7.30 to 9.30 pm. These are friendly and supportive groups of practitioners and non-practitioners, a chance to meet, give and get advice, and refill your mixing bottle. For more information call Carol Charles 01243 583963.

Uruguay